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Science and research

Faculty of Chemical Technology

Department/Institute: Institute of Organic Chemistry, Catalysis and Petrochemistry
Contact person:        Assoc. Prof. Pavol Hudec, PhD.
Contact:                  +421 2 5932 5499
e-mail:                     pavol.hudec@stuba.sk
web stránka:            http://www.chtf.stuba.sk/koch/peoplee.php


Laboratory of heterogeneous catalysis contains three basic orientations:

  1. Preparation of acid and bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts mainly on the base of synthetic zeolites and mesoporous materials (including the synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieves), also in the form of extrudates using alumina as binder. Besides synthesis, this area comprises mainly the modification of zeolites by chemical action – ion exchange, dealumination or desilication in combination with thermal treatment as so-called deep-bed hydrothermal dealumination at temperatures up to 800 °C.
  2. Characterization of prepared heterogeneous catalysts – for this area of research are constructed in laboratory several standard methods: a) determination of total acidity of heterogeneous catalysts by TPDA (Temperature-Programmed desorption of Ammonia) method, b) determination of Broensted and Lewis acid centers by the method of FTIR-spectra of adsorbed pyridine, c) measuring of skeletal vibration FTIR-vibration by the method of KBr-technique, d) in high-temperature vacuum cell it is possible to study FTIR- characteristics of heterogeneous catalytic processes in-situ on the surface of catalysts, e) characterization of texture properties of heterogeneous catalysts by physical adsorption of nitrogen at the temperature of liquid nitrogen with the evaluation of specific surface are by BET-method, specific volume of micropores (for zeolites and other microporous solids) and surface of mesopores by t-plot method, and determination of mesopore size distribution. Other characteristics, like XRD-spectra, SEM and TEM-characterization, MAS-NMR spectra are ensured by cooperation with other department of our faculty, or with other faculties and Academy of Sciences.
  3. Catalytic testing of heterogeneous catalysts – laboratory is equipped by a range of laboratory reactors from flow microreactor (300 mg of catalyst) on-line connected to gas chromatograph, via flow atmospheric reactors with catalyst bed of ca 5 ml to flow high-pressure reactors with catalyst bed of 10 – 50 ml, capable at pressure of hydrogen 3 - 5 MPa study some of important industrial refinery and petrochemical processes. Moreover we have laboratory MicroActivity Test (MAT) constructed according the US standard ASTM D-3907-92, which serves for testing of FCC-catalysts and different FCC-feeds. Some of heterogeneous catalytic processes are tested in mixed pressure autoclaves with volume of reaction mixtureup to 100 ml.



Grant VEGA 1/0228/12:  Pyrolysis and catalytic conversion of biomass and organic wastes into second generation fuels

The subject of research is direct conversion of vegetable oils, products of thermal processing of waste polymers and of biomass to fuels in FCC process on standard FCC catalysts modified with ZSM-5 zeolite, which will provide a better conversion of oxygen compounds of biomass into hydrocarbons.

Research is devoted also to the alkylation of aromatic with long-chain 1-alkenes C10-C18 to alkylaromatics over solid acid catalysts, mainly zeolite-based, in order to replace environmentally unfriendly homogeneous FC-catalysts. Part of research is oriented to direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, mainly benzene, over heterogeneous catalysts based on modified zeolites ZSM-5.



1. Lovás, Peter - Hudec, Pavol - Oleríny, Vladimír: Catalytic cracking of conventional FCC feed with addition of rape oil.
In: Proceedings of the 11th Pannonian International Symposium on Catalysis : September 3-7, 2012, Obergurgl, Austria. - Vienna : Vienna University of Technology, 2012. - ISBN 97-8-3-900554-71-2. - S. 145-146

2. Horňáček M., Hudec P., Smiešková A. Jakubík T.:Alkylation of Benzene with 1-alkenes over BETA-Zeolite in Liquid Phase, Reaction Kinet. Mech. Catal. 99 (2), 431-437 (2010)

3. Smiešková A., Hudec P., Kumar N., Salmi T., Murzin D.Yu., Jorík V.: Aromatization of Methane on Mo-modified Teolites: Influence of the Surface and Structural Properties of the Carriers, Applied Catalysis A: General 377, 83-91 (2010)                                                                                        

4. Horňáčková M., Grolmusová Z., Horňáček M., Rakovský J., Hudec, P., Veis P.: Calibration analysis of zeolites by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochimica acta. Pt B. Atomic spectroscopy.  74-75, 119-123 (2012)             

5. Smiešková A., Rojasová E., Hudec P., Šabo Ľ.: Aromatization of Light Alkanes over ZSM-5 Catalysts. Influence of the Particle Properties of the Zeolite, Applied Catalysis A.: General 268, 235-240 (2004)

6. P.Hudec, A.Nociar, A.Smiešková, T.Jakubík: Liquid-phase alkylation of benzene by long-chain linear a-olefins over Y and mordenite type zeolite catalysts. Influence of Si/Al ratio, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 158 (2005) 1795-1802


Fig.1: High-temperature vacuum cell for FTIR-study of surface heterogeneous catalytic processes