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Science and research

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

Department/Institute: Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering
Contact person:         Ing. Pavol Heretík
Contact:                   +421 2 602 91 299
e-mail:                      pavol.heretik@stuba.sk


Laboratory of Digital Protections is focused on testing and measuring electric protections and devices serving to ensure correct operation of these protections. This laboratory is used in the context of applied research as well as for the educational process on the issue of protecting power electric systems.

Laboratory involves:

  • Workplace for testing Generator Protections

Workplace includes synchronous generator driven by an asynchronous commutator motor, synchronization counter and a electrical switchgear serving to interconnection of individual protections and instrumental transformers. This switchgear is shown in Fig. 1

Design of the workplace enables:

    • simulation different operating states of synchronous generator,
    • monitoring the impact of parameters on the generator protection settings
    • carrying out primary protection tests,
    • carrying out secondary protection tests.

The workplace is further provided with a generator protection terminals SIPROTEC 7UM62 Siemens and ABB RET 670 containing various types of generator protection and multifunctional device Omicron CNC 56 serving to testing any kind of digital protections.

  • Workplace for testing Distance Protections

The workplace consists of switchgear and test set ABB KZ4. Using the test set in cooperation with a special type of switchgear may be testing different types of distance protection types. The set also enables single-phase and three-phase tests. Moreover, of concomitant use of panel and test set can be tested even complex impedance protection with a start distance impulse and angle-dependent measurements.


  • Workplace for testing OverCurrent and Voltage protections:

This workplace allows secondary protection test with current or voltage measuring elements. The workplace consists of electrical switchboard and electrical source ABB Z11. Source enables testing protections regulated current 0-100A / 0-200A, or a regulated voltage of 0-380 V. In the laboratory, there are more evolutionarily older but functional and practically identical sources of voltage and current, so it is possible to carry out even three-phase protection test. Furthermore, mentioned switchgear was modified in order to allow the generation of start signal for time tripping measuring.



The laboratory was built in collaboration with external companies such as Siemens, ABB, Liv Elektra, Slovenské elektrárne and Schneider Electric.


Beláň, A., Heretík, P., Kováč, M., Dimenzovanie prístrojových transformátorov prúdu pre rychlé ochrany. Posterus [elektronický zdroj] : Internetový časopis Vol. 5, Iss. 11. s. 9. ISSN 1338-0087.

Heretík, P., Beláň, A., Kováč, M., Volčko, V., Proposal of Current Transformers for Rapid Protection Relay. In ELITECH´13 [elektronický zdroj] : 15th Conference of Doctoral Students; Bratislava, Slovakia, 5 June 2013. Bratislava: Nakladateľstvo STU, 2013, s. 5. ISBN 978-80-227-3947-4.       

Heretík, P., Beláň, A., Kováč, M., Volčko, V., Protecting of PV Power Plant/Model of Current Transformer. In Elektroenergetika 2013 : 7th International Scientific Symposium on Electrical Power Engineering. Stará Lesná, Slovakia, September 18-20, 2013. Košice: Technical University of Košice, 2013, s. 488--491. ISBN 978-80-553-1441-9.        

Heretík, P., Kováč, M., Farkas Smitková, M., Beláň, A., Volčko, V., Heretík, P., Research on Transformer Interaction Caused by Inrush Current and Parametric Study of this Phenomenon. International Journal of Energy Vol. 7, Iss. 3. s. 72--81. ISSN 1998-4316.

Heretík, P., Kováč, M., Rozdielová ochrana transformátora a analýza jej činnosti pri abnormálnych dejoch v elektrizačnej sústave. Posterus [elektronický zdroj] : Internetový časopis Vol. 6, Iss. 1. s. 9. ISSN 1338-0087.                           

Volčko, V., Eleschová, Ž., Kováč, M., Heretík, P., The Influence of Transformer Impedance on Short Circuit Current. In ELITECH´13 [elektronický zdroj] : 15th Conference of Doctoral Students; Bratislava, Slovakia, 5 June 2013. Bratislava: Nakladateľstvo STU, 2013, s. 3. ISBN 978-80-227-3947-4.                              

Janíček, F., Lazorík, S., Lenďák, F., Rzavský, P., Návrh rekonštrukcie laboratórií digitálnych ochrán. EE časopis pre elektrotechniku a energetiku Roč. 19, mimoriadne č. : ELOSYS, Trenčín, 15.-18.10.2013. s. 128--131. ISSN 1335-2547.


Diploma thesis:

Heretík, P., Vplyv parametrov výkonových a prístrojových transformátorov na činnosť diferenciálnych ochrán. Diplomová práca. Bratislava: FEI STU, 2012. 116 s.

Skoupý, R., Návrh laboratória moderných elektrických ochrán. Diplomová práca. Bratislava: FEI STU, 2013. 59 s.

Belko, L., Vplyv parametrov generátora na nastavenie a skúšky generátorových ochrán. Diplomová práca. Bratislava: FEI STU, 2013. 64 s.



Fig.1 Workplace for testing Generator Protections    

Fig. 2 Workplace for testing Distance Protections 

Fig. 3 Workplace for testing OverCurrent and Voltage Protections